About the PTSD-Repository

Why Is It Needed?

The National Center for PTSD created the PTSD-Repository to help people understand what is known about PTSD treatment. Researchers and clinicians have long relied on published meta-analyses and literature reviews to get an understanding of effective treatments. These sources are useful, but they can quickly become outdated and none include all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on PTSD treatments. There hasn’t been a single, comprehensive source of information that can answer questions about all types of interventions or other study details that might matter to researchers, clinicians, patients and their families.
The PTSD-Repository was designed to address these drawbacks.  It brings together data from 496 published studies on a wide range of treatments and is updated annually to capture new studies. The information in it is wide in scope and rich in detail, including over 300 variables. The audience is also broad: anyone with an interest in PTSD treatment, including Veterans, the general public, clinicians, researchers, educators, policymakers and the media.
The PTSD-Repository allows users to access information in a variety of ways. At the most basic level users can read our data stories on important topics. Users can also interact with our visualizations or create their own charts, graphs, maps and other ways to “see” data. These visualizations can be saved and shared with others. Finally, users can download the data for exploration and data analysis.

What Is In It?

The PTSD-Repository contains data from RCTs conducted in adults with PTSD. RCTs are studies that assign the participants in the study randomly—by chance—to the treatments being examined.
The studies included in the PTSD-Repository are specific to PTSD treatment. Most studies target PTSD outcomes. These RCTs may also examine the impact of the PTSD treatment on other mental health conditions and co-occurring problems (such as difficulty sleeping or anger). In addition, the PTSD-Repository includes studies that intentionally target both PTSD and substance use disorder (SUD), conditions that often co-occur. Users can choose to look at all the studies, focus specifically on the studies of PTSD treatment alone, or just look at the PTSD plus SUD studies.
Only English language studies published from January 1988 through February 2023 are currently included. The studies could have been conducted in any country.

Studies by location

Studies by year

Choose any year in the chart below to see the types of treatments studied in that year's RCTs. Note that studies from 2023 are not included in the graphic because the full calendar year is not included in the data. You can filter the graphic to include the 2023 studies. 

Types of Treatment in RCTs

Studies in the PTSD-Repository were categorized into the following 8 types of treatment: psychotherapy (trauma-focused versus non-trauma focused), pharmacotherapy, complementary and integrative health (CIH), nonpharmacologic biological, nonpharmacologic cognitive, collaborative care, control and "other treatments" that do not fit into the other categories.

See the table below or our Reference Guide: Treatments Found in the PTSD-Repository that outlines the organization and provides definitions.
Psychotherapy is talk therapy with a licensed provider and can be used with subclassifications of “trauma-focused” or “non-trauma-focused." Pharmacotherapy uses medications; it can be grouped into drug classes such as antidepressants and antiadrenergic medications. Both antidepressants and antianxiety medications are further classified into more specific subcategories. Complementary and integrative health (CIH) represents a wide category of approaches that are considered to be outside the standard in the current practice of Western medicine or that are used in coordination with conventional approaches. Nonpharmacologic biological treatments use a medical device or medical procedure of some kind. Nonpharmacologic cognitive treatments teach cognitive skills to improve attention. Collaborative care treatments are those in which integrated medical and mental health treatment is delivered, often in primary care by nurse managers. Controls are comparison conditions such as placebo pill, waitlist and treatment as usual (when treatment as usual cannot be clearly defined as another specific treatment). The Other Treatments category includes studies that did not fit the main 6 classifications (e.g., animal-assisted, physical therapies, and internet-based facilitated self-help).
If a study compared more than 1 type of treatment, both treatment types were coded. For example, some studies are coded as psychotherapy and pharmacotherapypsychotherapy and CIH or other mixed. The table below shows the treatment categories along with some specific treatments that fall under those categories. The list of specific treatments is not exhaustive. To search for a specific treatment in the PTSD-Repository, go to the Study Interventions dataset. From there you can search for a Treatment Name (assigned by the investigators) or a Standardized Treatment Name (a more general category assigned by the National Center for PTSD). 
The PTSD-Repository also allows users to "drill down" to interventions within treatment arms of each study. For more information, read our story, Which PTSD Treatments Have Been Studied?

PTSD Treatment Studies Over Time

Keep in mind that not every PTSD treatment is represented in the database. In some cases it's because there haven't been any RCTs conducted on those treatments. In other cases, studies did not meet the criteria to be included.

Each year we identify studies by searching multiple databases including MEDLINE®, Cochrane CENTRAL, PsycINFO®, and the National Center for PTSD’s PTSDpubs database. We also review reference lists of systematic reviews and clinical practice guidelines for relevant RCTs.
This table gives details about the population, intervention and study design requirements that studies had to meet in order to be included.
Because we want to be able to answer a variety of questions about PTSD treatment, we extract more than 300 variables from the studies we identify. For example, in addition to treatment type, we track assessment instruments used, assessment method, study sample size, proportion of military/Veteran participants, trauma types and treatment response, among others. 

Why Should I Trust It?

Because of who created it
The PTSD-Repository is a project of the National Center for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (NCPTSD), the world's leading research and educational center of excellence on PTSD and traumatic stress. Since the Center’s founding in 1989, NCPTSD researchers have been recognized for the contributions they have made studying the causes, assessment and treatment of PTSD. With guidance from NCPTSD, the data were abstracted by the Pacific Northwest Evidence-based Practice Center (EPC), a research center at Oregon Health & Science University with more than 20 years’ experience conducting systematic reviews as part of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) EPC Program.
Because of how we built it
At the direction of NCPTSD, the Pacific Northwest EPC followed AHRQ's Methods Guide for Effectiveness and Comparative Effectiveness Reviews to develop the PTSD-Repository. This included convening a technical expert panel whose members represented a range of clinical and research perspectives on PTSD treatment. We consulted with these experts throughout the development process. We also received input from independent peer reviewers and sought public comment before publication, per AHRQ guidelines. The results of this work were published in an AHRQ report in 2019updated AHRQ reports in 2020, 2022, and a manuscript published in the Journal of Traumatic Stress that provides an overview of the methodology.
Because of what's in it
The PTSD-Repository includes data drawn from the most rigorous type of treatment research study: randomized controlled trials, or RCTs. You’ll recall that RCTs are studies that assign participants in the study randomly—by chance—to the treatment(s) being examined. RCTs provide the strongest level of scientific evidence because assigning participants randomly improves our confidence that changes in PTSD symptoms are due to the treatments themselves.
Our confidence in the quality of the data in the PTSD-Repository is strong, yet we recognize that there may be errors or omissions. Please contact us at NCPTSD@va.gov if you find any mistakes.

Understanding treatment studies

Learn more about RCTs and other types of treatment studies.

How Do I Use It?

There are many ways to use the PTSD-Repository. You can simply view visualizations and stories we have created based on PTSD-Repository data. You can interact with the data yourself by searching, filtering and creating visualizations. Or you can download the data to explore trends and run your own analyses. You will have the most options available to you if you create your own free account in the PTSD-Repository.

How can I use what I learn?

There are hundreds of questions that can be answered with PTSD-Repository data. Providers, patients and their families can use it to explore the benefits and harms of treatments for PTSD that they are considering. Researchers can draw on the data in the PTSD-Repository when they conduct their own meta-analyses, systematic reviews or literature reviews. Funding agencies and researchers can identify evidence gaps to set priorities for future research or support grant applications. Policymakers, educators, researchers and the media can turn to the PTSD-Repository for visualizations to use in presentations and articles or to search for evidence on specific treatments.

What's next for the PTSD-Repository?

The PTSD-Repository will continue to be updated annually. Since launching the platform, we expanded the pool of studies to include trials of treatments for co-occurring substance abuse and PTSD. In 2023, risk of bias ratings were added for all studies using the Cochrane's Risk of Bias 2 rating system. The 2023 update also included standardized effect sizes which make is easier to compare treatment effectiveness across studies.

Jump in!

As you dig into the PTSD-Repository, we recommend learning more about how to find the data you want by reading our story, How the Data Were Organized
When you are ready to use the data, learn some tips in our story, Getting Started with the PTSD-Repository
We would be interested in hearing from you at NCPTSD@va.gov if you use data from the PTSD-Repository for your own research or dissemination projects!